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The following list of words may help beginners translate Latin titles and legends appearing on maps. The Renaissance Latin used on maps is very similar to classical Latin, although there are vocabulary differences.

One cannot teach Latin in a paragraph. However, as a reminder, Latin is an inflected language. Word endings change to reflect usage. Nouns are declined, and entries below give the nominative (subject) case, followed by the genitive (possessive) ending. Plurals and other cases exist, but are not given here. Adjective entries give the three endings for the masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative case. Verbs appear in the third person singular. The vocabulary below should be sufficient to extract the essence of simple phrases. Bear in mind that adjectives may appear before or after the nouns they modify. Also, the letters i and j are often used interchangeably. In addition, words such as sculpsit and scripsit were often used loosely, and may merely indicate some unspecified connection between the person named and the map. Some examples may be helpful:

W. Marshall sculpsit. Literally, W[illiam]. Marshall en­graved, or more loosely, engraved by William Marshall.

Americae Nova Tabula. Here America has been inflected, and appears in the genitive (possessive) singular. Thus the title is New Map of America.

Hispaniae Novae Descriptio. This is very similar to the above example, but now Novae agrees with, and thus modifies, Hispaniae. Therefore, the translation is Map of New Spain, and not New Map of Spain, which would have been written as Hispaniae Nova Descriptio.

a, ab prep from, by

Aberdonia n Aberdeen

ac conj and, and also

accuratissimus, -a, -um adj most accurate

adjacens pres part adjoining, connecting

Aestivarum Insulae n Bermuda, lit. Islands of Summers, i.e., Sommer's Islands

Africus n southwest wind

Albion n Britain

Albis Fluvius n Elbe River

aliquot indecl num some, several

Alostum n Aalst

Alsatia n Alsace

alter, -era, -erum adj other

amplissimus, -a, -um adj most glorious, splendid, or esteemed

Amstelodamum, -i n Amsterdam

Andegavensis Ducatus n Anjou

Andegavum n Angers

Andreapolis n St. Andrews

Anglia, -ae n England

annus, -i n year

anthropophagi n cannibals

Antverpia n Antwerp

Aparctias n northwind

Apelliotes n eastwind

apud prep at the establishment of; usually indicates publisher or printer

aqua, -ae n water

Aquilo n north by northeast wind

Aquisgranum n Aachen

archiducatus, -us n archduchy

archiepiscopatus, -us n archipiscopate

Archipelagus Meridionalis n Cyclades Islands

Archipelagus Septentrionalis n Aegean Sea

Argentina n Strassburg

Argentoratum n Strassburg

Argestes n northwest wind

Artesia n Artois

atque conj and, and also

auctor, -is n author, creator; auctore usually indicates cartographer or draftsman

Augusta n Augsburg

Augusta Perusia n Perugia

Augusta Trebocorum n Strassburg

Augusta Treverorum n Treves

Augusta Trinobantum n London

Augusta Vangionum n Worms

Augusta Vindelicorum n Augsburg

Augustodunum n Autun

Aurea Chersonesus n Malay Peninsula

Aurelia n Orleans

Aurelia Allobrogum n Geneva

Auster n southwind

australis, -e adj southern

Babenberga n Bamberg

Barchino n Barcelona

Bardum n Barth

Batavia n Djakarta

Bellovacum n Beauvais

Bercheria n Berkshire

Biturigum n Berry

Bononia n Bologna

borealis, -e adj northern

Borbetomagus n Worms

Boreas n north by northeast wind

Borussia n Prussia

Borysthenis n Dniepr River

Brechiniae Comitatus n Brecknockshire

Brema n Bremen

Breslanus n Breslau, Wroclaw

Britannia n Britain, Brittany

Brixia n Breschia

Brugae n Bruges

Brunopolis n Braunschweig

Bruxellae n Brussels

Byzantium n Istanbul

Cadomum n Caen

caelavit v (he) engraved

caelestis, -e adj celestial

Caesar Augusta n Saragossa

Caesarea Insula n Jersey

Caesarodunum Turonum n Tours

Calatia n Ciazzo

Caletensium n Calais

Caletum n Calais

Cambria n Wales

Candia, -ae n Crete

Cantabrigiensis Comitatus n Cambridge

Cantium n Kent

Carinthia n Karnten

Cecias n northeast wind

centum card num hundred

Ceretica n Cardigan

Cestria n Chester

chalcographus, -i n engraver

chersonesus, -i n peninsula

chorographica, -ae n geography

Cimbrica Chersonesus n Jutland

Circius n north by northwest wind

cis prep on this side of

citra prep on this side of

Claudiopolis n Cluj

Clivia n Cleve

cognitus, -a, -um adj known, reconnoitered

Colonia n Cologne

Colonia Agrippina n Cologne

Colonia Allobrogum n Geneva

Colonia Claudia n Cologne

Colonia Munatiana n Basle

Colonia Ubiorum n Cologne

Comensis Lacus n Lake Como

comitatus, -us n county

compendiosus, -a, -um adj abridged

complectens pres part embracing, comprising

comprehendens pres part including

Conatia n Connacht

conatus, -us n effort, endeavor; ex conatibus, by the efforts of

Condivincum Nannetum n Nantes

confinis, -e adj adjacent

confinis, -is n neighboring region

Constantia n Constance

Constantinopolis n Istanbul

continens, -entis adj adjacent, neighboring

conventus, -us n district assigned to a city, association

Corcagia n Cork

Cornubia n Cornwall

Corus n northwest wind

Cracovia n Cracow

cum prep with

Cumbria n Cumberland

Dania n Denmark

Darbiensis Comitatus n Derbyshire

Daventria n Deventer

decem card num ten

decimus, -a, -um ord num tenth

delineavit v (he) sketched; usually indicates cartographer or draftsman

Delphi n Delft

Denbigiensis Comitatus n Denbigh Shire

descripsit v (he) drew, indicates cartographer or draftsman

descriptio, -ionis n map, representation, description

Devonia n Devonshire

dicio, -ionis n dominion, sovereignty; also ditio, -ionis

dioecesis, -is n district, governor's jurisdiction, diocese

Divio n Dijon

divisus, -a, -um adj divided, separate

dominium, -ii n ownership, property, rule

Dorcestria Comitatus n Dorsetshire

Dordracum n Dordrecht

Duacum n Douay

ducatus, -us n duchy, dukedom

Dunelmensis Episcopatus n Durham

duo, duae, duo card num two

duodecim card num twelve

Eblana n Dublin

Eboracensis Ducatus n Yorkshire

editus, -a, -um adj published, produced

Elvetiorum Argentina n Strassburg

emendatus, -a, -um adj corrected, improved, amended

Enipontius n Innsbruck

episcopatus, -us n episcopate, bishopric

Erfordia n Erfurt

et conj and

Euroafricus n south by southwest wind

Euroauster n south by southeast wind

Euronotus n south by southeast wind

Euros n southeast wind

Eustadium n Eichstadt

ex prep from, out of

exactissime adv most exactly

exactissimus, -a, -um adj most exact

excudebat, excudit, excud., exc. v (he) made or struck; usually indicates printer or publisher

exhibens pres part displaying

Exonia n Exeter

facies n shape, appearance, face

Faventia n Faenza

Favonius n westwind

fecit v (he) made, produced, created, or prepared; usually indicates engraver

fere adv approximately

finitimus, -a, -um adj neighboring

Fionia n Funen Island

Firenze n Florence

Florentia n Florence

florentissimus, -a, -um adj most flourishing, prosperous, or eminent

flumen, -inis n river

fluvius, -ii n river

forma, -ae n figure, design, sketch, plan

formis indicates publisher

Forum Iulii n Friuli

Forum Livii n Forli

fretum, -i n strait, channel

Frisia n Friesland

Fulgineum n Foligno

Gades n Cadiz

Gallia, -ae n France

Gallovidia n Galway

Ganabum n Orleans

Gand, Gandavum n Ghent

Gebenna n Geneva

Geldria n Gelderland

Genabum n Orleans

geographicus, -a, -um adj geographical

Germania Inferior n Netherlands

Glascua n Glasgow

Glotta n Clyde

Graecia n Greece

Gratianopolis n Grenoble

Gravionarium n Bamberg

Hafnia n Copenhagen

Haga Comitis n The Hague

Hammona n Hamburg

Hannonia n Hainaut

Hanovia n Hanau

Hantonia Comitatus n Hampshire

Hassia n Hesse

Helenopolis n Frankfort on Main

Hellas n Greece

Hellespontius n northeast wind

Helvetia n Switzerland

Herbipolis n Wurtzburg

heres, heredis n heir, successor

Hibernia, -ae n Ireland

Hierosolyma n Jerusalem

Hispalis n Seville

Hispania n Spain

hodie adv today, nowadays

hodiernus, -a, -um adj present, modern

Holmia n Stockholm

Holsatia n Holstein

Huntingdonensis Comitatus n Huntingdonshire

Illyricum n Dalmatia

imago, -inis n image, likeness, copy

Imaus Mons n Himalayas

impensa, -ae n cost, expense; impensis usually indicates publisher

impensus, -a, -um adj expensive

imperium, -ii n empire, dominion

in prep in, on, at

incidit, incidebat v (he) cut; usually indicates engraver

incola, -ae n inhabitant

inferior, -ius adj lower

instruavit v usually indicates engraver

insula, -ae n island

integro, -a, -um adj whole, entire

invenit v (he) devised; usually indicates cartographer or draftsman

inventor n usually indicates cartographer

Islandia n Iceland

item adv likewise, also, in the same manner

Iuliacensis Ducatus n Julich

Iutia n Jutland

iuxta, juxta prep near

lacus, -us n lake

Lancastria Palatinatus n Lancashire

Larius Lacus n Lake Como

Latium n Lazio

Legio n Leon

Leida n Leyden

Leicestrensis Comitatus n Leicestershire

Lemovicense Castrum n Limoges

Lemovicum n Limousin

Leodium n Liege

Leucorea n Wittemburg

Libonotus n south by southwest wind

Libs, Lips n southwest wind

limes, limitis n boundary, route

Lipsia n Leipzig

litus, litoris n coast, beach

locus, -i n place, district

Londinum n London

Lotharingia n Lorraine

Lovanium n Louvain

Ludoviciana n Louisiana

Lugdunum n Lyons

Lugdunum Batavorum n Leiden

Lusatia n Lausitz

Lusitania n Portugal

Lutetia n Paris

Lutzenburgum n Luxembourg

Mantua Carpetanorum n Madrid

mappa, -ae n map

marchionatus, -us n marquisate

Mare Hyrcanum n Caspian Sea

Mare Rubrum n Red Sea

mare, -is n sea, ocean

Matritum n Madrid

Mediolanum n Milan

meridionalis, -e adj southern

Mervinia Comitatus n Merionethshire

milia, -ium card num thousand

mille adj a thousand

Misnia n Meissen

Moguntia n Mainz

Moguntiacum n Mainz

Momonia n Munster

Mona n Isle of Man

Monachium n Munich

Monasterium n Munster

Montensis Ducatus n Bergh

Montisferratus n Monferrato (Italy)

Monumenthis Ducatus n Monmouthshire

mundus, -i n the world, the universe, the earth

Mutina n Modena

Namurcum n Namur

Nannetum n Nantes

Nassovia n Nassau

Natolia n Asia Minor

nec non besides, and also

nec, neque conj and besides, and also

Neocomum n Neuchatel

neotericus, -a, -um adj modern

Nicsia n Naxos

nonus, -a, -um ord num ninth

Nordovicum n Norwich

Norimberga n Nuremberg

Northantonensis Comitatus n Northamptonshire

Notus n southwind

novem card num nine

Novesium n Neuss

Noviodunum n Nevers

Noviomagum n Nijmegen

novissimus, -a, -um adj newest, most recent

noviter adv newly

novus, -a, -um adj new

nunc adv now, nowadays

ob prep because of, against

occidentalis, -e adj western

oceanus, -i n ocean

octavus, -a, -um ord num eighth

octo card num eight

officina, -ae n workshop, factory, ex officina --, from the workshop of, i.e., published or printed by

olim adv once, at that time, formerly

oppidum, -i n town

ora n border, coast

ora maritima n seacoast

orbis, -is n globe, circle, world, earth, orbit

Orcades n Orkneys

orientalis, -e adj eastern

Oxonium Comitatus n Oxfordshire

pagus n village, province

Palatinatus Bavariae n Oberpfalz

Palatinatus Rheni n Rheinland-Pfalz

Panormum n Palermo

Papia n Pavia

pars, partis n part, region

Parthenope n Naples

Parthenopolis n Magdeburg

passim adv here and there, all over

Patavium n Padua

Pedemontana n Piedmont

per prep through, by

Perusia n Perugia

Pictavium n Poitiers

pictor, -oris n painter

pinxit v (he) drew, painted, or decorated

plus, pluris adj more

Polonia n Poland

Pontus Euxinus n Black Sea

praecipuus, -a, -um adj excellent, extraordinary, special

praesertim adv especially

praeter conj besides

praeter prep past, beyond

presbiter n elder, priest

Presbiter Ioannis n Prester John

pretiosus, -a, -um adj expensive, valuable, precious

primus, -a, -um ord num first

privilegium, -ii n private law; cum privilegio usually indicates copyright

promissionis n promise

proprius, -a, -um adj special, individual, particular

prout conj as, just as

Provincia n Provence

quartus, -a, -um ord num fourth

quattuor card num four

-que conj and, used as a suffix

qui, quae, quod rel pron who, which, what, that

quinque card num five

quintus, -a, -um ord num fifth

Ratisbona n Regensburg

recens, -entis adj recent

recens, recenter adv recently, newly

regio, -ionis v line, boundary, region

Regiomontium n Konigsberg

regnum, -i n kingdom, dominion

retectus, -a, -um adj discovered, opened, made accessible

Rhedones n Rennes

Rhenolandia n Rheinland

Rhenus Fluvius n Rhine River

Ripen n Ribe

Rothomagum n Rouen

Rugia n Rugen Island

Rupella n La Rochelle

Sabaudia n Savoy

Sacra Insula, Insula Sacra n Holy Island

Salmantica n Salamanca

Salopia n Shrewsbury

Salopiae Comitatus n Shropshire

sanctus, -a, -um adj holy

Sarnia Insula n Guernsey

Saxonia Inferior n Lower Saxony

Saxonia Superior n Upper Saxony

Scania n Zealand Island

Schedamum n Scheidam

scilicet adv certainly, naturally

Scio n Chios

Sclavonia n Slavonia

Scotia, -ae n Scotland

scripsit v (he) wrote or drew; sometimes indicates lettering engraver

sculpsit, sculp., sc. v (he) carved; usually indicates engraver

secundum prep according to

secundus, -a, -um ord num second

sedes belli n seat of war

Senae n Siena

septem card num seven

Septentrio n northwind

septentrionalis, -e adj northern

septimus, -a, -um ord num seventh

Servia n Serbia

seu conj or

sex card num six

sextus, -a, -um ord num sixth

Sinarum Regio n China

Sinus Gangeticus n Bay of Bengal

situs, -a, -um adj situated

situs, -us n position, situation, site

sive conj or

Somersettensis Comitatus n Somersetshire

sophus, -a, -um adj wise

Soria n Syria

Sorlinges n Scillies

stellatus, -a, -um adj starry

Stiria n Steiermark

subjacens, -entis adj near

Subsolanus n eastwind

Suecia n Sweden

Suevia n Sweden

sumptus, -us n cost; sumptibus, at the cost of; usually indicates publisher

superior, -is adj upper, higher

Sylva Ducis n Bois-Le-Duc

tabula, -ae n map

tam adv so, so much, to such an extent

tam ... quam...  both ... and ...

Taprobana n Ceylon

Taraco n Tarragona

Tarvisium n Treviso

Taurica Chersonesus n Crimea

Taurinum n Turin

Terra Sancta n Holy Land

terra, -ae n the earth, land

terrestris, -e adj earthly, terrestrial

tertius, -a, -um ord num third

theatrum belli n theater of war

Tholosa n Toulouse

Thrascias n north by northwest wind

Ticinum n Pavia

Tigurum n Zurich

Toletum n Toledo

Tornacum n Tournai

totus, -a, -um adj all, entire, total; gen. totius

tractus, -us n district, region

Trajectum n Utrecht

Trajectum ad Mosam n Utrecht

Trajectum ad Viadrum n Frankfort on Oder

trans prep across, beyond

Transisulana n Overijssel

Trebia n Trevi

Trecae n Troyes

tres, tria card num three

Treveris n Treves (Trier)

tribus, -us n tribe

Tricasses n Troyes

Tridentum n Trent

Turcicum Imperium n Ottoman Empire

Turonum n Tours

Tuscia n Tuscany

typus, -i n image, figure

Ultonia n Ulster

Ultrajectum n Utrecht

Ulyssipo n Lisbon

undecim card num eleven

universalis, -e adj universal

unus, -a, -um card num one

urbs, urbis n city

Ursina n Bern

uterque, utraque, utrumque adj or pron each, both; gen. utriusque

Utinum n Udina

Valesium n Valois

Vallisoletum n Valladolid

Vectis Insula n Isle of Wight

vel conj or

Venetia n Venice

Venetum n Veneto

ventus, -i n wind; ventorum, of the winds

verissimus, -a, -um adj truest

vernacule adv in the vernacular

Veromandua n Vermandois

Verona n Bonn, Verona

verus, -a, -um adj true, actual

vetus, -eris adj old

Vicentia n Vicenza

vicinus, -a, -um adj nearby

Vienna n Vienne

Vindobona n Vienna

Vitemberga n Wittemburg

Vormatia n Worms

vulgo adv commonly, generally, in the vernacular

Vulturnus n southeast wind

Wallia n Wales

Wetteravia n Wetterau

Wigorniensis Comitatus n Worcestershire

Wiltonia, Wiltoniensis Comitatus n Wiltshire

Zephyrus n westwind

Zerbi n Djerba Island

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